The Germans viewed the attacks as catastrophic. Studies of individual plants by the Survey show that although buildings were destroyed the machine tools showed remarkable durability. The aim of the bombing campaign was to demoralize the North Vietnamese, damage their economy, and reduce their capacity to support the war in the hope that they would negotiate for peace, but it failed to have those effects.
The Secondary Campaigns During the course of the air war, and particularly during anda number of other German industries were attacked, some of them in force and others merely as secondary targets, or as targets of opportunity when the main objective could not be reached or found.
The power of a police state over its people cannot be underestimated. This type of expectation might justify the appeasement of Hitler in the late s.
With improved bombing techniques it was also likely to be considerably more accurate. The most thorough study of the target concerned, that is vital points of the target, is a pre-requisite for success. The Defeat of the German Air Force The seeming paradox of the attack on the aircraft plants is that, although production recovered quickly, the German air force after the attacks "I believe the Fuehrer was not very much elated at the loss of efficiency of our air forces.
Further Dividends From the Oil Attack The attack on the synthetic oil plants was also found to have cost Germany its synthetic nitrogen and methanol supply and a considerable part of its rubber supply. It has been estimated that between 5, and 23, people lost their lives in this extremely destructive raid.
In February and March of the Germans massed 1, tanks on the Baranov bridgehead at the Vistula to check the Russians. These latter operations were notably successful; as the front moved to the German border the attack was extended to the railroads of the Reich proper.
Survey estimates show somecivilians killed andwounded. For comparison, the Mosquito carried 1. Rather it suggests the degree of industrial undermobilization in the earlier years.
The Germans made good use of the breathing spell. RooseveltPresident of the neutral United States, issued an appeal to the major belligerents Britain, France, Germany, and Poland to confine their air raids to military targets, and "under no circumstances undertake bombardment from the air of civilian populations in unfortified cities"  The British and French agreed to abide by the request, with the British reply undertaking to "confine bombardment to strictly military objectives upon the understanding that these same rules of warfare will be scrupulously observed by all their opponents".
The force was small and its range limited. The attack on German transportation was intimately woven with the development of ground operations. German industry is bruised and temporarily paralyzed. Nevertheless, the recuperative and defensive powers of Germany were immense; the speed and ingenuity with which they rebuilt and maintained essential war industries in operation clearly surpassed Allied expectations.
Their power to cover great distances at high speed, their instant readiness for action, their independence within the detachment radius of communications, their indifference to obstacles and the unlikelihood of casualties to air personnel combine to encourage their use offensively more often than the occasion warrants.
Hitler relied heavily upon it. Minelaying is to be scaled down in favour of these attacks. Also, the major powers' possession of newly developed advanced bombers was a great military advantage; they would not accept any negotiated limitations regarding this new weapon.
A target that was attacked with poor results in might have yielded major returns in for the simple reason that an attack in was certain to be enormously heavier. The British also stepped up their strategic bombing campaign.
By October 14, traffic on the Rhine had been interdicted by a bomb that detonated a German demolition charge on a bridge at Cologne. In support of the invasion a major assignment of the air forces had been the disruption of rail traffic between Germany and the French coast through bombing of marshalling yards in northern France.
Allocations to the principal consumers was heavily cut, and eventually the production of hexogen was abandoned.
However, no subsequent attack had the shock effect of the Hamburg raid. To help tell this story and explain its significance, the American Battle Monuments Commission has released the Strategic Bombing Campaign online interactive.
Tupolev SB2 - a pre-war light day bomber, since it was used as night bomber to reduce its heavy losses. Also excelled as a night fighter and in other roles. The claimed losses in January were 1, German fighters, in February 1, and in March 1, The British and US directed part of the strategic bombing to the eradication of "wonder weapon" threats in what was later known as Operation Crossbow.
Nearly all German sources agree that the hope for a quick victory lasted long after the short war became a long one. It had 5 gun turrets and could carry up to 9 tons of bombs internally or even two ton bombs under its wings, but typically it carried tons in the long range missions to Japan.
The directives issued to the Luftwaffe for the Polish Campaign were to prevent the Polish Air Force from influencing the ground battles or attacking German territory. A revised estimate prepared by the Survey which is also a minimum places total casualties for the entire period of the war atkilled andwounded.
It is estimated that more than one million homes were damaged or flattened during the bombing, with poor areas of the city such as the East End suffering particularly badly during the onslaught. And the Ninth Air Force in Western Europe and the Twelfth Air Force in the Mediterranean were developed with the primary mission of securing the sky in the theatre of combat and clearing the way for ground operations.
Every effort will be made to eradicate Warsaw completely". An Air Force B Liberator bomber on a mission in (AP Photo) As the US military was looking to expand production of Boeing's B bomber in the late s, Washington asked Consolidated.
Page ii. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey FOREWORD. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey was established by the Secretary of War on November 3,pursuant to a directive from the late President Roosevelt.
Nov 09, · Watch video · From February 13 to February 15,during the final months of World War II (), Allied forces bombed the historic city of Dresden, located in eastern Germany. The bombing. The most-significant episode of strategic bombing during World War II was the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in The United States had already used conventional bombing raids to devastate civilian centres in both Germany and Japan.
The strategic weapons which struck at the enemy's military-industrial heart. Bombers were the ultimate long range heavy weapons of World War 2, a role they still have. strategic bombing strategic bombing during World War II Allied bombing In Dalmatia, the Italian enclave of Zara suffered extensive bombing, which destroyed 60% of the city and killed about 1, of its 20, inhabitants, prompting most of the population to flee to mainland Italy (the .Strategic bombing during world war 2